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Merging the consciousness of racial equity work with the power of design methodologies. Move like water, break rock. @multiplyequity

In microbiology, a culture is the environment, albeit artificial, humans construct to enable the growth of bacteria. A child of a microbiologist, stacks of agar plates lined the walls of my youth. The incubator in the laboratory was its own microbiome — home to species of e.coli, staphylococcus, and streptococcus. I recall the smell of the lab vividly — a pungent infusion of a sallow, occasionally sweet, staleness backlit by vacant fluorescent hospital lights, always perfumed with my mom’s Giorgio Beverly Hills Red. (It was the 90s.)

The process of bacterial growth provides useful analogs for developing a deeper understanding of how our own culture has come to be and continues to evolve. First, bacterial cultures require certain media. Staphylococcus is differentiated in a salt agar. Haemophilus sp thrives in chocolate agar. Different nutrients are used to promote and promulgate the growth of particular species. Second, the environmental conditions must be optimized for peak growth. Temperature, pH, humidity, and oxygen levels are all levers microbiologists pull to create the ideal growth conditions for each species. Simulations at heart, these environments are controlled, bounded, and designed for a certain outcome — to optimize for the growth of a particular species of bacteria.

Our medium — what feeds our culture and encourages it growth — are ideas. These ideas are not the offspring of spontaneous generation. They are the progeny of history. They act as governors on our relationships. These ideas manifest in our work and in our being. These ideas give us explicit and implicit directions on the very connections that define our humanity.

To optimize the environment for each of the 100,000 different species of bacteria we need to adjust key variables — changing things like the temperature, pH, and oxygen levels. As humans, we think this is also true for us. It is not. While there are close to 7 billion humans, we are just one species, and we need the same core elements to thrive. Yet, we continue to work to separate ourselves from each other. We can use our language, our practices, and our relationships with each other to create a universal sense of belonging.

Unfortunately, the ideas that we scaled the best and optimized for growth are the very ideas that damage our relationships with each other. They design our geospatial relationships — our cities, neighborhoods, and enclaves. Constructors of our most intimate friendships, they arbitrate marital fitness — meting and doling out who is fit and unfit for human relationship and connection. They till the soils of isolation creating the fuel and the rhetoric to justify the inclusion of some and the exclusion of others. Their lethal power lies in their ability to judge wholeness and humanity through relationships of subjugation and hierarchy. These ideas normalize emotional, physical, and spiritual distance. Oppression, the mistreatment of other people at scale, then, is the outcome these ideas are designed to produce.

This oppression is often hard to see and name for two reasons. First, the engagement of these ideas often generates feelings of deep hurt, vulnerability, and humiliation. These feelings silence us. Second, these ideas are often disregarded or denied by those who hold significant power, privilege, and position.

We believe that it is important to name the these ideas to denature their catalytic power.

These are 10 ideas that fuel oppression :

Idea 1 : lighter skinned people deserve more love, power, affection, wealth, grace, and dignity than darker skinned people

Idea 2 : males are smarter, more trustworthy, better leaders, more responsible, stronger, and more honest than females

Idea 3 : richer people are smarter, more trustworthy, more responsible, and deserve more aspiration and grace than poorer people

Idea 4 : christians are more trustworthy, righteous, and more justified in their violence than non-christians

Idea 5 : heterosexuals are more natural and deserving of love, dignity, humanity, and companionship than lesbians, gays, and bisexuals

Idea 6 : cisgender people are more natural, deserving of love, companionship, dignity, and humanity than transgender people

Idea 7 : english speakers with dominant culture accents are more intelligent than non english speakers or those with different accents

Idea 8 :people who are differently abled (physically and mentally) are less intelligent than able bodied people

Idea 9 :young adults are seen as smarter, more creative, more energetic, and more employable than older adults, teens, and children

Idea 10 : adults with college degrees are smarter than adults without college degrees

These ideas fuel oppression by making it easy for us to create physical, emotional, and spiritual distance from each other. The magnitude of this mistreatment is evident in the experiences of the most marginalized — those who when positioned in the hierarchies of our social relationships always assume a bottomed, subjugated position. Consider the life chances of a non Christian, differently abled, dark skin transgender woman of color without a college degree who does not speak English. With 2017 being a record breaking year for deadliest violence against transgender women , it is no wonder why we have to scream black lives matter. We have to cry out that trans lives matter.

The +1 Stability Clause

The stability clause is perhaps the most dangerous of these ideas. It asserts that these ideas will not change and will continue to govern our relationships in the present and for future generations. The stability clause is guilty of the most imperfect crime — the theft of power, agency, and hope.

Humans have a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. An ever-evolving symbiosis, millions of the digestive bacteria of our ancestors were first unemployed and then extinct. Shifts in our diet reduce the need for some species to exist. We changed our behavior. Bacteria became extinct.

Our cultural media bounds our current relationships with other people. We must develop the courage to expand our imagination to envision a world where these ideas, like the bacteria, become extinct. We must change our behavior. How do we name the ideas when we see them? How do we create a space for repair and reconciliation? How do we move towards true liberation from these ideas? When we imagine and work towards the state of their extinction, we will have transcended the need for social constructs. We will be humanity unbound.

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A Koa Context encapsulates node's and objects into a single object which provides many helpful methods for writing web applications and APIs. These operations are used so frequently in HTTP server development that they are added at this level instead of a higher level framework, which would force middleware to re-implement this common functionality.

A is created request, and is referenced in middleware as the receiver, or the identifier, as shown in the following snippet:

Many of the context's accessors and methods simply delegate to their or equivalents for convenience, and are otherwise identical. For example and delegate to the object, and and delegate to the .


specific methods and accessors.


Node's object.


Node's object.

Bypassing Koa's response handling is not supported . Avoid using the following node properties:


A koa object.


A koa object.


The recommended namespace for passing information through middleware and to your frontend views.

Application instance reference.

ctx.cookies.get(name, [options])

Get cookie with :

koa uses the Simone Rocha floral embroidered asymmetric full skirt Hot Shopping KjwJ5yE
module where options are simply passed.

ctx.cookies.set(name, value, [options])

Set cookie to with :

koa uses the cookies module where options are simply passed.

ctx.throw([status], [msg], [properties])

Helper method to throw an error with a property defaulting to that will allow Koa to respond appropriately. The following combinations are allowed:

For example is equivalent to:

Note that these are user-level errors and are flagged with meaning the messages are appropriate for client responses, which is typically not the case for error messages since you do not want to leak failure details.

You may optionally pass a object which is merged into the error as-is, useful for decorating machine-friendly errors which are reported to the requester upstream.

koa uses http-errors to create errors.

ctx.assert(value, [status], [msg], [properties])

Helper method to throw an error similar to when . Similar to node's assert() method.

koa uses http-assert for assertions.


To bypass Koa's built-in response handling, you may explicitly set . Use this if you want to write to the raw object instead of letting Koa handle the response for you.

Note that using this is not supported by Koa. This may break intended functionality of Koa middleware and Koa itself. Using this property is considered a hack and is only a convenience to those wishing to use traditional functions and middleware within Koa.

Request aliases

The following accessors and alias Perfect Moment chevron hoodie Fake Sale Online Discount Looking For 8B7p8ZpNM3

Response aliases

The following accessors and alias Response equivalents:

A Koa object is an abstraction on top of node's vanilla request object, providing additional functionality that is useful for every day HTTP server development.



Request header object.


Set request header object.


Request header object. Alias as .


Set request header object. Alias as .


Request method.


Set request method, useful for implementing middleware such as .


Return request Content-Length as a number when present, or .


Get request URL.


Set request URL, useful for url rewrites.


Get request original URL.


Get origin of URL, include and .


Get full request URL, include , and .


Get request pathname.


Set request pathname and retain query-string when present.


Get raw query string void of .


Set raw query string.

Get raw query string with the .

Set raw query string.

Get host (hostname:port) when present. Supports when is true , otherwise is used.


Get hostname when present. Supports when is true , otherwise is used.

If host is IPv6, Koa delegates parsing to 2018 Unisex Really Thom Browne Eyewear round frame glasses Cheap Big Discount Huge Range Of High Quality CDwZeg
, This may impact performance.


Get WHATWG parsed URL object.


Get request void of parameters such as "charset".


Get request charset when present, or :


Get parsed query-string, returning an empty object when no query-string is present. Note that this getter does support nested parsing.

For example "color=bluesize=small":


Set query-string to the given object. Note that this setter does support nested objects.


Check if a request cache is "fresh", aka the contents have not changed. This method is for cache negotiation between / , and and . It should be referenced after setting one or more of these response headers.


Inverse of .


Return request protocol, "https" or "http". Supports when is true .

Shorthand for to check if a request was issued via TLS.


Request remote address. Supports when is true .


When is present and is enabled an array of these ips is returned, ordered from upstream -> downstream. When disabled an empty array is returned.


Return subdomains as an array.

Subdomains are the dot-separated parts of the host before the main domain of the app. By default, the domain of the app is assumed to be the last two parts of the host. This can be changed by setting .

For example, if the domain is "": If is not set, is . If is 3, is .

Check if the incoming request contains the "Content-Type" header field, and it contains any of the give mime s. If there is no request body, is returned. If there is no content type, or the match fails is returned. Otherwise, it returns the matching content-type.

For example if you want to ensure that only images are sent to a given route:

Content Negotiation

Koa's object includes helpful content negotiation utilities powered by Oliver Peoples MP2 glasses Cheap Online Store Manchester nPnSzg
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. These utilities are:

If no types are supplied, all acceptable types are returned.

If multiple types are supplied, the best match will be returned. If no matches are found, a is returned, and you should send a response to the client.

In the case of missing accept headers where any type is acceptable, the first type will be returned. Thus, the order of types you supply is important.


Check if the given is acceptable, returning the best match when true, otherwise . The value may be one or more mime type string such as "application/json", the extension name such as "json", or an array .

You may call as many times as you like, or use a switch:


Check if are acceptable, returning the best match when true, otherwise . Note that you should include as one of the encodings!

When no arguments are given all accepted encodings are returned as an array:

Note that the encoding (which means no encoding) could be unacceptable if the client explicitly sends . Although this is an edge case, you should still handle the case where this method returns .


Check if are acceptable, returning the best match when true, otherwise .

When no arguments are given all accepted charsets are returned as an array:


Check if are acceptable, returning the best match when true, otherwise .

When no arguments are given all accepted languages are returned as an array:


Check if the request is idempotent.


Return the request socket.


Return request header.

A Koa object is an abstraction on top of node's vanilla response object, providing additional functionality that is useful for every day HTTP server development.



Response header object.


Response header object. Alias as .


Request socket.


Get response status. By default, is set to unlike node's which defaults to .


Set response status via numeric code:

NOTE : don't worry too much about memorizing these strings, if you have a typo an error will be thrown, displaying this list so you can make a correction.


Get response status message. By default, is associated with .


Set response status message to the given value.


Set response Content-Length to the given value.


Return response Content-Length as a number when present, or deduce from when possible, or .


Get response body.


Set response body to one of the following:

If has not been set, Koa will automatically set the status to or .


The Content-Type is defaulted to text/html or text/plain, both with a default charset of utf-8. The Content-Length field is also set.


The Content-Type is defaulted to application/octet-stream, and Content-Length is also set.


The Content-Type is defaulted to application/octet-stream.

Whenever a stream is set as the response body, is automatically added as a listener to the event to catch any errors. In addition, whenever the request is closed (even prematurely), the stream is destroyed. If you do not want these two features, do not set the stream as the body directly. For example, you may not want this when setting the body as an HTTP stream in a proxy as it would destroy the underlying connection.

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for more information.

Here's an example of stream error handling without automatically destroying the stream:


The Content-Type is defaulted to application/json. This includes plain objects and arrays .


Get a response header field value with case-insensitive .

response.set(field, value)

Set response header to :

response.append(field, value)

Append additional header with value .


Set several response header with an object:


Remove header .


Get response void of parameters such as "charset".


Set response via mime string or file extension.

Note: when appropriate a is selected for you, for example will default to "utf-8". If you need to overwrite , use to set response header field to value directly.

Very similar to . Check whether the response type is one of the supplied types. This is particularly useful for creating middleware that manipulate responses.

For example, this is a middleware that minifies all HTML responses except for streams.

response.redirect(url, [alt])

Perform a [302] redirect to .

The string "back" is special-cased to provide Referrer support, when Referrer is not present or "/" is used.

To alter the default status of , simply assign the status before or after this call. To alter the body, assign it after this call:


Set to "attachment" to signal the client to prompt for download. Optionally specify the of the download.


Check if a response header has already been sent. Useful for seeing if the client may be notified on error.


Return the header as a , if it exists.


Set the header as an appropriate UTC string. You can either set it as a or date string.


Set the ETag of a response including the wrapped s. Note that there is no corresponding getter.


Vary on .


Flush any set headers, and begin the body.

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Community links to discover third-party middleware for Koa, full runnable examples, thorough guides and more! If you have questions join us in IRC!

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